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Geysers of the World   

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Transactions XII

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Thermal Activity Change on Geyser Hill in October 2009

 Ralph Taylor

 Abstract:  In October 2009 thermal activity on the northwestern portion of Geyser Hill increased greatly.   Activity of Depression Geyser, Lion Geyser, and Little Cub Geyser changed in character and frequency.  This paper describes the changes noted in the electronically recorded eruption patterns of these geysers.


 Activity of Beehive's Indicator in 2009

 By Lynn Stephens

 Abstract:  This article provides information about durations of Beehive's Indicator for 2009, a year when an eruption of Beehive's Indicator was a reliable predictor of an impending eruption of Beehive Geyser. The duration of Beehive's Indicator consists of two components—time between the start of the Indicator and start of Beehive's eruption, or lead time, and time the Indicator continues after the start of Beehive, or continuation time. This article provides descriptive statistics about the total duration, lead time, and continuation time, and a quantitative analysis of the relationship between the lead time and continuation time, lead time exhibited by the Indicator and the duration of Beehive Geyser's eruption, and the continuation time exhibited by the Indicator and the duration of Beehive Geyser's eruption.


 The Behavior of the Grand Group During the Summer of 2009

 By Vicki Whitledge, Ralph Taylor, Trevor Hammann, Wai Ling Ho

 Abstract:  During the summer of 2009, extra data loggers were placed in the Grand Group. These loggers recorded the activity of Turban Geyser and Grand's pool. Loggers were also in place on Grand Geyser, West Triplet Geyser, and Rift Geyser. This paper analyzes the data obtained from these five loggers and discusses some of the relationships between these features. The results of this study are compared with a similar study done during the summers of 2005 and 2006, with emphasis on the data acquired in 2006.


 Activity of Fan and Mortar Geysers 2007 – 2011

 By Tara Cross

 Abstract:  Fan and Mortar geysers' behavior during the active phase that lasted from June 2007 through October 2011 is summarized. Intervals, "event cycles," and unusual behavior are described, including details about eruption cycles and a list of eruptions.


 Black Diamond Pool Eruptions 2006 – 2011

 By Richard L. Powell

 Abstract:  Black Diamond Pool erupted on July 13, 2006 after a 45-year dormancy. The Wall Pool area had not been active since 1961. Black Diamond Pool continued to have eruptions that usually occurred without warning, were very violent, were of very short duration, and ranged from about 6 feet to as much as 100 feet in height. No pattern or interval between eruptions has been established because of a lack of continuous observations and an inability to keep monitoring sensors in the pool due to the violence of the eruptions. Rocks used as markers on the north shore of the pool in the summer of 2010 were generally not disturbed, indicating a significant decrease of energy in Black Diamond Pool. Black Diamond reactivated in late October 2011 with eruptions continuing into November.


 Twelve Hours in the Life of White Dome Geyser

 By Stephen Michael Gryc

 Abstract:  Eighteen successive eruptions of White Dome Geyser were observed on June 19 of 2011. The recorded data show that there is little correlation between the intervals (which vary widely) and durations (which do not vary widely).


 A Brief History of King Geyser, West Thumb Geyser Basin

 By Tara Cross and Rocco Paperiello

 Abstract:  This article presents the recorded history of King Geyser, West Thumb Geyser Basin. The available records suggest that King Geyser has been only sporadically active over the history of Yellowstone National Park, with active phases occurring in 1904–1905, the 1930s, 1997, and 2009–2010.


 The Number of Geysers in Yellowstone National Park

 By Jeff Cross

 Abstract:  Yellowstone National Park contains at least 1,283 geysers. The efforts of the author are combined with the contributions of T. Scott Bryan, Rocco Paperiello, Marie Wolf, Lee Whittlesey, other individuals, and The Geyser Observation and Study Association, to compile a list of every geyser known to have erupted in Yellowstone National Park from the time of its establishment in 1872 through 2011.


 The Short Life of Mickey Geyser, Mickey Hot Springs, Harney County, Oregon

 By Jeff Cross

 Abstract:  During its brief period of activity in the early 1990s, Mickey Geyser was the only natural geyser in Oregon. The reports from 1990 through 1994 that are collected here show that Mickey Geyser began having eruptions to 1 foot in May of 1990. In March and May of 1991, Mickey Geyser had larger eruptions to 5 feet. At times, the intervals and durations were bimodal. By March of 1992, Mickey Geyser had regressed to a perpetual spouter. A new vent developed between March of 1992 and March of 1994.


 Geyser Activity at Mickey Hot Springs March 23, 1991

 By Marie Wolf and Rocco Paperiello

 Abstract:  Marie Wolf and Rocco Paperiello visited Mickey Hot Springs, Oregon on March 23, 1991. Their previously unpublished report on Mickey Geyser, including a table of their data and a map of the geyser's crater, is reproduced here with a few typographical corrections.


 Crystal Geyser, Green River, Utah: A Summary of Observations from 1972 – 2008

 By Richard L. Powell

 Abstract:  Crystal Geyser, located on the east bank of the Green River about four miles south of the city of Green River, Utah, is a test boring for petroleum completed in 1936. The well is a frequent producer of copious amounts of CO2-laden ground water. The boring quickly became known as "Crystal Geyser" because it had eruptions of white, foamy water. Eruptions from the well have progressively developed longer intervals and durations, and generally lower heights.


 Geyser Activity at the Crystal Geyser September 1976

 By Sam Martinez

 Abstract:  Sam Martinez and Jamie Espy visited Crystal Geyser, a CO2 driven cold–water geyser that has had periodic eruptions from a drill boring since 1936, on September 12, 13, and 14, 1976. Martinez's previously unpublished report on the activity of Crystal Geyser is reproduced here, with a few typographical corrections.


 Crystal Geyser Observations in 2000

 By Jeff Cross

 Abstract:  Crystal Geyser, near Green River, Utah, erupts carbonated water following periodic overflow and related activity of Upper and Lower Aragonite Pools. Data for two eruptions are tabulated and analyzed. The observed behaviour is reminiscent of the Grand Geyser complex in Yellowstone National Park.


 Observations of Small Model Geysers with Variable Plumbing

 By Brian Davis

 Abstract:  The subsurface conduit structure of geysers is not well understood, primarily due to the difficulty in direct observation. Yet at least some characteristics of the eruptive patterns may be closely tied to the details of the conduit geometry, such as style of the eruption, regularity and series or "wild phase" behavior. A series of very closely related physical models were studied to try to determine how plumbing variations might influence the eruptive behaviours. Even for these very simple models, dramatic differences in behavior occurred with different geometries, even while holding the heat input, volume and depth constant.


 The Significance of Violent Steam Phases

 By Jeff Cross

 Abstract:  The eruptions of some natural geysers are characterized by an atomized eruption column that is ejected from the geyser vent with a loud roaring sound. Through experiments with model geysers, it is demonstrated that the violence of the eruption, manifested by the sound of the eruption and the degree to which the erupted water is atomized, correlates with the initial temperature of the water over the range of 222°F (106°C) through 293°F (145°C). It is suggested that, since maximum permissible temperatures of liquid water within a geyser increase with depth, the violence of the eruption may be used to estimate a minimum depth for the geyser's plumbing system.


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