Geysers Active in 1988, Yellowstone National
T. Scott Bryan
in the Spectacle/Round Complex, Winter 1988/1989, Myriad Group, Upper Geyser
Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.
INTRODUCTION: An increase in activity of some features in the Spectacle/Round
complex of the Myriad Group was observed beginning in early January 1989. Four
previously inactive geysers reactivated and 2 new features were formed. This
reactivation is believed to have been caused by a series of minor earth tremors
felt at the Old Faithful area on December 29. 1988.
Activity of Beehive Geyser, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park,
ABSTRACT: Since 1985, Beehive Geyser, located in the Upper Geyser Basin of
Yellowstone National Park, has shown a remarkable tendency to only erupt during
daylight hours. The observations of 1988 are discussed in detail, with a
examination of the alternate hypothesis, that most nighttime eruptions were
missed. Some speculation on the cause of this activity is given.
Lion Geyser Group, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.
ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the relationships within the Lion Geyser Group,
using data from observations in the years 1983, 1985, 1987 and 1988.
Based on these observations, the Lion complex can be seen as comprising of six
geysers, all interrelated and all connected underground. This paper will
discuss each geyser individually and explain the observed connections between
them. Typical behavior and statistical information is included, as well as some
speculative suggestions regarding the underground connections.
of Anemone Geysers, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.
Ralph C. Taylor Jr.
ABSTRACT: This paper discusses observations of the Anemone geysers made in the
summer months of 1985, 1986, 1987, and 1988. The behavior of the Anemone geyser
system shows a significant change in 1988 from that in the previous summers.
Typical eruptions of both types are described, and observed eruption data is
presented and analyzed for both patterns of activity. In 1985-87, the eruptions
of both North and South Anemone were regular in interval and duration. In 1988,
South Anemone became dominant, having long eruptions about once per hour. These
affected the intervals of North Anemone, but not the duration.
Geyser Reactivates, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.
INTRODUCTION: During January of 1988 Cascade Geyser erupted. This was its first
active cycle since the winter of 1983/84, and only its fifth historically
documented eruptive sequence. Even though Cascade's eruptive activity lasted
only three days, other nearby thermal features were effected.
Geyser Complex, Summer 1978, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park,
ABSTRACT: From June 4 until July 8, 1978, an intensive effort was made to record
data for 100 consecutive intervals (101 consecutive eruptions) of Grand Geyser.
Data for several other geysers in the Grand Geyser Group were also collected.
Purposes of the study were: I) to determine the interrelationships among the
various geysers in the group and to record their effect on the length of
Grand's intervals; 2) to perform various statistical tests on parameters such
as eruption duration, number of bursts, and intervals between eruptions; 3) to
record changes in Grand's behavior during the period of study. The following
paper summarizes the observations and data that were collected.
Activity for Key Spring, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park,
INTRODUCTION: A new geyser, with no known history of eruptive activity, suddenly
sprang to live on August 21, 1988. Located about 100 meters north of Grand
Geyser and 20-30 meters south of the Economic Geysers, it has been known as
"Key Spring" and also unofficially as "Hobart Geyser". The crater is roughly
gourd shaped, 2 1/2 meters long and 1 meter wide.
Grotto Geyser Group and Giant Geyser Group, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone
National Park, Wyoming.
T. Scott Bryan
INTRODUCTION: Despite the great long-standing interest in and known importance
of the geysers of the Grotto Group, the sheer size and rarity of eruptions by
the geysers of the Giant Group, and the established connective relationship
between them, never in the 118 years of recorded Yellowstone history have these
geysers received a detailed program of observational study. Marler (1973) notes
the relationship between the groups and the resultant variations in the
activity by the geysers, but he provides neither data nor substantial detail.
Both Marler and Bryan (1986) provide general descriptions of the individual
activities but, again, no further details.
A project such as this has, therefore, been needed for a long time. It has been
suggested by many through the years-- by myself as early as 1976 and by
Heinrich Koenig as recently as 1988-- but because of the relative isolation of
the Grotto Group and the prospects of an observer having to sit through many
long and lonely hours of rather boring action, none had tackled the study.
Because changes were known to be occurring among these groups starting with the
eruption by Giant Geyser on September 12, 1987, I had already determined that I
would attempt the project in 1988. The fact that Giant erupted again on June
28, the very day of my arrival in the Park, confirmed that this was a necessary
and viable project.
of Giant Geyser Eruption, September 12, 1988, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone
National Park, Wyoming.
ABSRTACT: Giant Geyser erupted on September 12, 1988, at 1846. This paper
describes the eruption, including the hot period preceding the eruption.
In checking the water levels in various pools around the Giant area the morning
after the eruption, it was noted that the pool between Grotto Fountain and
Riverside, on the east side of the paved trail and south of the Riverside
prediction board, was almost empty. Subsequent observations revealed that the
water level in the pool fluctuates in response to marathon eruptions of Grotto.
of Link Geyser during 1983, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park,
ABSTRACT: During 13-18 October 1983, Link Geyser had an unprecedented series of
eruptions. At least 40 eruptions were observed or inferred, and as many as 20
more may have occurred. In each of the five years since this activity, changes
have occurred in the springs around Link.
and Mortar Geysers, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.
ABSTRACT: During the last decade investigations into the behavior of Fan and
Mortar Geysers have significantly improved our knowledge of this geothermal
complex. The discoveries include an understanding of their cyclical minor
activity and its relationship to major eruptions, the bimodal temperature curve
of the minor cycle, short-cycle energy shifts within the complex, unique
long-term cyclical behavior, and the unusual underground connections among the
members of this geothermal unit.
and Mortar Geysers in 1988, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park,
ABBSTRACT: During 1988 the author witnessed nine eruptions of Fan and Mortar and
the later half of another. In addition, a great deal of time was spent noting
the geysers' behavior between other eruptions, sometimes missing the actual
play by only a few minutes. This paper will cover changes or phenomenon not
commonly noted or discussed.
on Slide Geyser, Cascade Group, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park,
INTRODUCTION: Slide Geyser is located in the Cascade Group of the Upper Geyser
Basin. It is not included in ~ Inventory of Thermal Features [Marler, 1973],
but it is referenced in The Geysers of Yellowstone [Bryan, 1986].
When observations were taken from the west bank of the Firehole river, looking
east towards Slide, the start and Stop times were determined based on when
water became visible. When standing on the east side of the river on the hill
above Slide, the start of the eruption is evidenced by splashing that does not
quite reach the lip of the crater, and therefore is not visible from the west
side of the river.
Observed durations were about 45 seconds to one minute, and intervals were about
15 minutes long. The observed durations and intervals are consistent with
Slide's historical pattern of activity as reported by Bryan.
on Fantail Geyser and Ouzel Geyser, Cascade Group, Upper Geyser Basin,
Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.
ABSTRACT: This report describes new activity in 1986 in the Cascade Group of the
Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyo. An overview of previous
ephemeral activity is discussed, then a detailed description of the activity
and evolution of "Fantail" Geyser and "Ouzel" Geyser is presented. Particular
attention is given to speculation about the origins of such ephemeral activity
in this area.
Possible Indication of the Internal Cavity Configuration of Fantail Geyser,
Cascade Group, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.
J. R. Hobart
ABSTRACT: A curious phenomenon was observed during the late stages of Fantail
Geyser eruptions. A cyclic pulsing would start about 30 to 40 minutes into the
eruption when the pool had been emptied. A sound of outrushing steam and
entrained water would be heard for several seconds, then quiet for a similar
interval. The process would repeat ...over and over, like a cycling engine. A
physical model for this phenomenon is proposed that could be used to determine
one of its internal cavity dimensions.
Characteristics of Silver Globe Group Vents, Biscuit Basin, Yellowstone
National Park, Wyoming.
Grover Schrayer III and David Scheel
ABSTRACT: The Silver Globe Group of geysers is located in the Biscuit Basin,
approximately 2 miles north of Old Faithful. Within this small area of about 20
by 40 feet are 5 geysers that display sympathetic behavior. This short report
details some of the characteristics of the group.
Behavior of Till Geyser, Midway Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park,
ABSTRACT: Till Geyser's pattern of activity is divided into five phases: a quite
period, overflow, eruption, pause, and a cycle of minor activity. During the
period of minor activity Till has steam bursts, or minor eruptions. The
durations, intervals, and nature of these steam bursts follow a distinct
pattern. This paper describes this activity and the pattern that it follows.
Patterns of Great Fountain Geyser, Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National
Tomas I. Vachuda
ABSTRACT: The cycles between, and patterns of, Great Fountain's eruptions are
consistent and easily defined. A body of data has been accumulated, and a
preliminary analysis of that data is presented. The characteristics of the
quiet period, overflow, big boil, pause, eruption and interval are outlined. Of
note is the geyser's apparent tendency to have shorter intervals preceding
eruptions occurring during the day than those preceding eruptions occurring at
Gemini Geyser Complex, Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.
David Goldberg and Michael Goldberg
INTRODUCTION: Gemini, Crack, and Pebble Geysers are an interesting group of
geysers across the road from White Dome Geyser on Firehole Lake Drive. In the
summer of 1988, these small geysers erupted cyclically in a highly predictable
sequence. Pebble, the feature closest to the road is a pool about 3 feet in
diameter. Its eruption consists of a series of splashes from the right side of
the pool, 1-3 feet high. To the left is Gemini. The main vent is in the bottom
of a shallow depression. A second vent is a foot to the right. The eruption is
a jetting 6-8 feet from both vents. The main vent jets mostly water and the
other steam and spray. Crack is the farthest of the geysers from the road. Its
main vent and many minor vents lie along a fissure in a level sinter platform.
The pulsating water column reaches 10-12 feet at its strongest.
Two other vents are known to have erupted with- in this complex. The August 1988
issue of The Geyser Gazer Sput reports that on one occasion a small hole
between Gemini and Crack was observed to spray to 2 feet. On July 26, 1987, the
authors saw a shallow hole between Gemini and the road have a series of
splashes sharply angled towards Pebble reaching half a foot high and 3 feet
Geyser Basin and Fall Disturbance, August 1974, Norris Geyser Basin,
Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.
T. Scott Bryan
ABSTRACT: The Norris Geyser Basin is known to have annual disturbances that
cause substantial variation from otherwise common behavior of many thermal
features. Some of these changes resulting from the disturbance that occurred
during August of 1974 are described.
in the Whirligig Complex, 1985, Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park,
INTRODUCTION: For most of the early 1980s the activity of the Whirligig Complex
was dominated by Big Whirligig, Constant and Splutter Pot Geysers. Beginning in
July of 1985 there were occasional shifts of energy towards Little Whirligig,
during which times the activity of Big Whirligig, Constant, and Splutter Pot
Norris Explosion Crater Update, Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park,
J. R. Hobart
ABSTRACT: The two 1987 hydrothermic explosion craters northwest of Norris Geyser
Basin were visited in July 1987 and July 1988. Activity included mud explosions
to 50 feet, termination of activity from the first crater, variability in
explosive power, and toppling of trees into the enlarging active crater.
Heart Lake Geyser Basin, Report and Investigation, Yellowstone National Park,
ABSTRACT: A catalog with detailed maps of the thermal features of the Heart Lake
Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park. Previous designations noted whenever
possible. Sources for names of features is also given.
Springs of the Northern Part of the Shoshone Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National
ABSTRACT: A detailed set of tables and maps making up an inventory of hot
springs and geysers of the northern portion of the Shoshone Geyser Basin.
Geyser Activity at Steamboat Springs, Nevada.
ABSTRACT: During 1984 through 1987 eruptive activity at Steamboat Springs,
Nevada, was observed in as many as twenty-one springs, despite repeated reports
of the area's demise. This number of geysers means that Steamboat was the
fourth or fifth largest geyser area in the world. Height of observed activity
ranged from heavy overflow to approximately 15 meters. In 1987 a nearby
geothermal powerplant, in conjunction with a regional drought, caused the end
of all geyser activity to date.
Historical Overview of the Beowawe Geysers, Nevada.
Jan A. Roberts
ABSTRACT: The Beowawe Geysers, located in north-central Nevada, have been known
to mankind for several thousand years. The nearby presence of a major water
course (the Humboldt River) has provided a convenient route through extremely
dry country for many travelers over the centuries. The roster of travelers
includes Native Americans, white fur trappers. white explorers, California
bound emigrants, and government surveyors. The first U.S. transcontinental
railroad closely follows the course of the Humboldt River, as does a major
highway (Interstate 80, and its predecessors). The end result has been that
thousands of individuals have had the opportunity to view the geysers while the
site was relatively undisturbed.
This Overview wilt cover, in chronological order, known and potential sightings
of the Beowawe Geysers area, coupled with reported levels of hot spring and
geyser activity. Ownership of tbe area as pertinent to the attempts to
establish first a National Monument and, later , a State Park wilt also be
Included in this Overview is a summary of environmental damage to the site by
the initial geothermal energy explorations of 1959 to 1965. The article
concludes with a brief look at the levels of thermal spring activity as
observed by the writer in 1969, 1970 and 1988.
Geysers of Mexico, A Summary
T. Scott Bryan
ABSTRACT: The following is a general description of five known or reported
geyser occurrences in Mexico. All five have received historical descriptions.
Two of these definitely do include true geysers at this time, another is an
active thermal area and probably does involve geysers, a fourth certainly has
but only after major scale earthquakes, and the last has likely never had an
actual geyser. This paper will include historical descriptions of all five
areas. For the first three there is also a description of my findings on visits
during January and February 1981.