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Transactions I


Geysers Active in 1988, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

T. Scott Bryan


Activity in the Spectacle/Round Complex, Winter 1988/1989, Myriad Group, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

Mike Keller

INTRODUCTION: An increase in activity of some features in the Spectacle/Round complex of the Myriad Group was observed beginning in early January 1989. Four previously inactive geysers reactivated and 2 new features were formed. This reactivation is believed to have been caused by a series of minor earth tremors felt at the Old Faithful area on December 29. 1988.


Diurnal Activity of Beehive Geyser, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

H. Koenig

ABSTRACT: Since 1985, Beehive Geyser, located in the Upper Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park, has shown a remarkable tendency to only erupt during daylight hours. The observations of 1988 are discussed in detail, with a examination of the alternate hypothesis, that most nighttime eruptions were missed. Some speculation on the cause of this activity is given.


The Lion Geyser Group, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

Allan Friedman

ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the relationships within the Lion Geyser Group, using data from observations in the years 1983, 1985, 1987 and 1988.

Based on these observations, the Lion complex can be seen as comprising of six geysers, all interrelated and all connected underground. This paper will discuss each geyser individually and explain the observed connections between them. Typical behavior and statistical information is included, as well as some speculative suggestions regarding the underground connections.


Observations of Anemone Geysers, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

Ralph C. Taylor Jr.

ABSTRACT: This paper discusses observations of the Anemone geysers made in the summer months of 1985, 1986, 1987, and 1988. The behavior of the Anemone geyser system shows a significant change in 1988 from that in the previous summers. Typical eruptions of both types are described, and observed eruption data is presented and analyzed for both patterns of activity. In 1985-87, the eruptions of both North and South Anemone were regular in interval and duration. In 1988, South Anemone became dominant, having long eruptions about once per hour. These affected the intervals of North Anemone, but not the duration.


Cascade Geyser Reactivates, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

Mike Keller

INTRODUCTION: During January of 1988 Cascade Geyser erupted. This was its first active cycle since the winter of 1983/84, and only its fifth historically documented eruptive sequence. Even though Cascade's eruptive activity lasted only three days, other nearby thermal features were effected.


Grand Geyser Complex, Summer 1978, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

Suzanne Strasser

ABSTRACT: From June 4 until July 8, 1978, an intensive effort was made to record data for 100 consecutive intervals (101 consecutive eruptions) of Grand Geyser. Data for several other geysers in the Grand Geyser Group were also collected. Purposes of the study were: I) to determine the interrelationships among the various geysers in the group and to record their effect on the length of Grand's intervals; 2) to perform various statistical tests on parameters such as eruption duration, number of bursts, and intervals between eruptions; 3) to record changes in Grand's behavior during the period of study. The following paper summarizes the observations and data that were collected.


New Activity for Key Spring, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

Mike Keller

INTRODUCTION: A new geyser, with no known history of eruptive activity, suddenly sprang to live on August 21, 1988. Located about 100 meters north of Grand Geyser and 20-30 meters south of the Economic Geysers, it has been known as "Key Spring" and also unofficially as "Hobart Geyser". The crater is roughly gourd shaped, 2 1/2 meters long and 1 meter wide.


The Grotto Geyser Group and Giant Geyser Group, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

T. Scott Bryan

INTRODUCTION: Despite the great long-standing interest in and known importance of the geysers of the Grotto Group, the sheer size and rarity of eruptions by the geysers of the Giant Group, and the established connective relationship between them, never in the 118 years of recorded Yellowstone history have these geysers received a detailed program of observational study. Marler (1973) notes the relationship between the groups and the resultant variations in the activity by the geysers, but he provides neither data nor substantial detail. Both Marler and Bryan (1986) provide general descriptions of the individual activities but, again, no further details.

A project such as this has, therefore, been needed for a long time. It has been suggested by many through the years-- by myself as early as 1976 and by Heinrich Koenig as recently as 1988-- but because of the relative isolation of the Grotto Group and the prospects of an observer having to sit through many long and lonely hours of rather boring action, none had tackled the study.

Because changes were known to be occurring among these groups starting with the eruption by Giant Geyser on September 12, 1987, I had already determined that I would attempt the project in 1988. The fact that Giant erupted again on June 28, the very day of my arrival in the Park, confirmed that this was a necessary and viable project.


Description of Giant Geyser Eruption, September 12, 1988, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

Lynn Stephens

ABSRTACT: Giant Geyser erupted on September 12, 1988, at 1846. This paper describes the eruption, including the hot period preceding the eruption.

In checking the water levels in various pools around the Giant area the morning after the eruption, it was noted that the pool between Grotto Fountain and Riverside, on the east side of the paved trail and south of the Riverside prediction board, was almost empty. Subsequent observations revealed that the water level in the pool fluctuates in response to marathon eruptions of Grotto.


Activity of Link Geyser during 1983, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

H. Koenig

ABSTRACT: During 13-18 October 1983, Link Geyser had an unprecedented series of eruptions. At least 40 eruptions were observed or inferred, and as many as 20 more may have occurred. In each of the five years since this activity, changes have occurred in the springs around Link.


Fan and Mortar Geysers, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

Paul Strasser

ABSTRACT: During the last decade investigations into the behavior of Fan and Mortar Geysers have significantly improved our knowledge of this geothermal complex. The discoveries include an understanding of their cyclical minor activity and its relationship to major eruptions, the bimodal temperature curve of the minor cycle, short-cycle energy shifts within the complex, unique long-term cyclical behavior, and the unusual underground connections among the members of this geothermal unit.


Fan and Mortar Geysers in 1988, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

Jens Day

ABBSTRACT: During 1988 the author witnessed nine eruptions of Fan and Mortar and the later half of another. In addition, a great deal of time was spent noting the geysers' behavior between other eruptions, sometimes missing the actual play by only a few minutes. This paper will cover changes or phenomenon not commonly noted or discussed.


Notes on Slide Geyser, Cascade Group, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

Lynn Stephens

INTRODUCTION: Slide Geyser is located in the Cascade Group of the Upper Geyser Basin. It is not included in ~ Inventory of Thermal Features [Marler, 1973], but it is referenced in The Geysers of Yellowstone [Bryan, 1986].

When observations were taken from the west bank of the Firehole river, looking east towards Slide, the start and Stop times were determined based on when water became visible. When standing on the east side of the river on the hill above Slide, the start of the eruption is evidenced by splashing that does not quite reach the lip of the crater, and therefore is not visible from the west side of the river.

Observed durations were about 45 seconds to one minute, and intervals were about 15 minutes long. The observed durations and intervals are consistent with Slide's historical pattern of activity as reported by Bryan.


Report on Fantail Geyser and Ouzel Geyser, Cascade Group, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

Marie Wolf

ABSTRACT: This report describes new activity in 1986 in the Cascade Group of the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyo. An overview of previous ephemeral activity is discussed, then a detailed description of the activity and evolution of "Fantail" Geyser and "Ouzel" Geyser is presented. Particular attention is given to speculation about the origins of such ephemeral activity in this area.


A Possible Indication of the Internal Cavity Configuration of Fantail Geyser, Cascade Group, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

J. R. Hobart

ABSTRACT: A curious phenomenon was observed during the late stages of Fantail Geyser eruptions. A cyclic pulsing would start about 30 to 40 minutes into the eruption when the pool had been emptied. A sound of outrushing steam and entrained water would be heard for several seconds, then quiet for a similar interval. The process would repeat ...over and over, like a cycling engine. A physical model for this phenomenon is proposed that could be used to determine one of its internal cavity dimensions.


Eruption Characteristics of Silver Globe Group Vents, Biscuit Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

Grover Schrayer III and David Scheel

ABSTRACT: The Silver Globe Group of geysers is located in the Biscuit Basin, approximately 2 miles north of Old Faithful. Within this small area of about 20 by 40 feet are 5 geysers that display sympathetic behavior. This short report details some of the characteristics of the group.


Eruptive Behavior of Till Geyser, Midway Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

Lynn Stephens

ABSTRACT: Till Geyser's pattern of activity is divided into five phases: a quite period, overflow, eruption, pause, and a cycle of minor activity. During the period of minor activity Till has steam bursts, or minor eruptions. The durations, intervals, and nature of these steam bursts follow a distinct pattern. This paper describes this activity and the pattern that it follows.


Eruption Patterns of Great Fountain Geyser, Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

Tomas I. Vachuda

ABSTRACT: The cycles between, and patterns of, Great Fountain's eruptions are consistent and easily defined. A body of data has been accumulated, and a preliminary analysis of that data is presented. The characteristics of the quiet period, overflow, big boil, pause, eruption and interval are outlined. Of note is the geyser's apparent tendency to have shorter intervals preceding eruptions occurring during the day than those preceding eruptions occurring at night.


The Gemini Geyser Complex, Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

David Goldberg and Michael Goldberg

INTRODUCTION: Gemini, Crack, and Pebble Geysers are an interesting group of geysers across the road from White Dome Geyser on Firehole Lake Drive. In the summer of 1988, these small geysers erupted cyclically in a highly predictable sequence. Pebble, the feature closest to the road is a pool about 3 feet in diameter. Its eruption consists of a series of splashes from the right side of the pool, 1-3 feet high. To the left is Gemini. The main vent is in the bottom of a shallow depression. A second vent is a foot to the right. The eruption is a jetting 6-8 feet from both vents. The main vent jets mostly water and the other steam and spray. Crack is the farthest of the geysers from the road. Its main vent and many minor vents lie along a fissure in a level sinter platform. The pulsating water column reaches 10-12 feet at its strongest.

Two other vents are known to have erupted with- in this complex. The August 1988 issue of The Geyser Gazer Sput reports that on one occasion a small hole between Gemini and Crack was observed to spray to 2 feet. On July 26, 1987, the authors saw a shallow hole between Gemini and the road have a series of splashes sharply angled towards Pebble reaching half a foot high and 3 feet horizontally.


Norris Geyser Basin and Fall Disturbance, August 1974, Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

T. Scott Bryan

ABSTRACT: The Norris Geyser Basin is known to have annual disturbances that cause substantial variation from otherwise common behavior of many thermal features. Some of these changes resulting from the disturbance that occurred during August of 1974 are described.


Activity in the Whirligig Complex, 1985, Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

Mike Keller

INTRODUCTION: For most of the early 1980s the activity of the Whirligig Complex was dominated by Big Whirligig, Constant and Splutter Pot Geysers. Beginning in July of 1985 there were occasional shifts of energy towards Little Whirligig, during which times the activity of Big Whirligig, Constant, and Splutter Pot geysers changed.


A Norris Explosion Crater Update, Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

J. R. Hobart

ABSTRACT: The two 1987 hydrothermic explosion craters northwest of Norris Geyser Basin were visited in July 1987 and July 1988. Activity included mud explosions to 50 feet, termination of activity from the first crater, variability in explosive power, and toppling of trees into the enlarging active crater.


The Heart Lake Geyser Basin, Report and Investigation, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

Rocco Paperiello

ABSTRACT: A catalog with detailed maps of the thermal features of the Heart Lake Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park. Previous designations noted whenever possible. Sources for names of features is also given.


Hot Springs of the Northern Part of the Shoshone Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

Rocco Paperiello

ABSTRACT: A detailed set of tables and maps making up an inventory of hot springs and geysers of the northern portion of the Shoshone Geyser Basin.


Recent Geyser Activity at Steamboat Springs, Nevada.

H. Koenig

ABSTRACT: During 1984 through 1987 eruptive activity at Steamboat Springs, Nevada, was observed in as many as twenty-one springs, despite repeated reports of the area's demise. This number of geysers means that Steamboat was the fourth or fifth largest geyser area in the world. Height of observed activity ranged from heavy overflow to approximately 15 meters. In 1987 a nearby geothermal powerplant, in conjunction with a regional drought, caused the end of all geyser activity to date.


An Historical Overview of the Beowawe Geysers, Nevada.

Jan A. Roberts

ABSTRACT: The Beowawe Geysers, located in north-central Nevada, have been known to mankind for several thousand years. The nearby presence of a major water course (the Humboldt River) has provided a convenient route through extremely dry country for many travelers over the centuries. The roster of travelers includes Native Americans, white fur trappers. white explorers, California bound emigrants, and government surveyors. The first U.S. transcontinental railroad closely follows the course of the Humboldt River, as does a major highway (Interstate 80, and its predecessors). The end result has been that thousands of individuals have had the opportunity to view the geysers while the site was relatively undisturbed.

This Overview wilt cover, in chronological order, known and potential sightings of the Beowawe Geysers area, coupled with reported levels of hot spring and geyser activity. Ownership of tbe area as pertinent to the attempts to establish first a National Monument and, later , a State Park wilt also be examined.

Included in this Overview is a summary of environmental damage to the site by the initial geothermal energy explorations of 1959 to 1965. The article concludes with a brief look at the levels of thermal spring activity as observed by the writer in 1969, 1970 and 1988.


The Geysers of Mexico, A Summary

T. Scott Bryan

ABSTRACT: The following is a general description of five known or reported geyser occurrences in Mexico. All five have received historical descriptions. Two of these definitely do include true geysers at this time, another is an active thermal area and probably does involve geysers, a fourth certainly has but only after major scale earthquakes, and the last has likely never had an actual geyser. This paper will include historical descriptions of all five areas. For the first three there is also a description of my findings on visits during January and February 1981.



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