A Photo Display
Unnamed Geyser erupting from a vent in Deep Blue Geyser's basin
Fan and Mortar Geysers
Dark Cavern Geyser
Pink Cone Geyser
Big Cub Geyser
Unnamed Geyser by Ragged Spring
Patterns in the intervals between
eruptions of Giantess Geyser
Abstract: During the early 1980s, Giantess Geyser erupted about
once a week. After the Borah Peak earthquake of 1983, it reverted to its
historical activity of infrequent eruptions. Before the earthquake, there was a
pronounced tendency for longer intervals to result in strong, steam-phase
eruptions, while short intervals tended to be aborted eruptions. Since the
earthquake, there have been series of from one to three eruptions a few weeks
apart, with several months to a year between the starts of series.
Pre-Eruptive Behavior of Oblong Geyser
Carl M. Bender and Daniel E. Bender
Abstract: This paper details a preliminary study of the
pre-eruptive patterns of Oblong Geyser. Its purpose is to describe those
patterns indicative of an eruption, and to propose a methodology for studying
Oblong in the future.
Probabilistic Geyser Gazing: Sprinkler
Castle Group, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National
Abstract: Historical reports characterize Sprinkler geyser as a
frequent but erratic performer. Observations in recent years have shown its
eruption pattern to be regular and have revealed an annual increase and
decrease in the level of activity. Two common statistical approaches to geyser
study are applied to Sprinkler data and compared with more traditional methods.
The Rotorua Geothermal Field, New Zealand
Geysers in New Zealand
Introduction: Prior to the Wairakei geothermal power station
and Ohakuri hydroelectric dam construction in the late 1950s, New Zealand had
about 240 geysers. However, by the late 1960s only 40 some of these remained.
These losses were directly attributed to human activity, most notable being the
building of a geothermal power station at Wairakei 90 kms south of Rotorua,
where approximately 90 geysers were lost by flooding. In the late 1980s Ohaaki
power station was commissioned and one year after, no geysers or flowing
alkaline hot springs remained there either.
At Taupo, the Waikato River channel was blasted in the 1950s to facilitate
flows, which coincided with the cessation of all geyser activity at Taupo/Spa,
along the riverside. At lake Rotomahana, the 1886 AD eruption of Mount Tarawera
totally destroyed the Pink and White Terraces, but created the totally new
geothermal system of Waimangu Valley; the only geothermal system worldwide
created in historical records.
Today six geysers remain at Waiotapu; several to Waimangu and Rotomahana; a few
at Ketetahi (on the northern slopes of Mount Tongariro); at least 26 at
Orakeikorako; and 15 at Rotorua.
Massive Regular Bubble Production by
Botryoidal Spring During August 1996
Abstract: A series of shallow earthquakes beneath the White
Creek area of Lower Geyser Basin energized Botryoidal Spring into a new mode of
eruption in which regular eruptions were initiated by spectacular masses of
bubbles and textured surface formations in the rising water column. This
offered an unprecedented opportunity to observe this rare manifestation of
surface tension effects in a geyser eruption. Observed eruptions were extremely
regular and much larger than previously noted for this geyser. Many photos were
obtained showing a wide variety of eruptive forms even though the observing
session was quite brief.
The Location of Oblique Geyser
Abstract: Oblique Geyser was located in the Gibbon Canyon, and
was named in passing by A.C. Peale in 1878. Since that time, the location of
that geyser has been lost. The name itself was then applied to another geyser
in the Geyser Creek area, and the name forgotten. Finally, it was resurrected
and is now being imposed on the wrong geyser. This report details how this came
Notes of "Pocket Basin Geyser"
Abstract: The following is a report on the extreme variability
of "Pocket Basin Geyser," and what one might expect in the attempt to view its
"A Pronounced Weakness for Geysers": Early
Geyser Gazers in Yellowstone
Abstract: The term "geyser gazer" is a more modern invention,
but Yellowstone's "geyser gazers" have existed as long as there was a national
park, and perhaps even before there was a park. The following paper attempts to
highlight a few of the more interesting geyser gazers of earlier times.
The View From Fountain Overlook July and
Abstract: A number of theories concerning the
inter-relationships among the geysers of the Fountain Group have been proposed
over the years. This is an attempt to find which relationships were dependable
-- at least during a few weeks in the summer of 1994.
Beehive's Indicator Geyser The "False
Indicator" Series of Early July 1994
T. Scott Bryan
Abstract: Beehive's Indicator underwent its second known
episode of frequent and regular eruptions without consequent play by Beehive
Geyser. The start of this series and its relationship to eruptions by Dome
Geyser and Giantess Geyser is briefly described.
Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park
Ralph C. Taylor
Abstract: This report describes the activity of Pyramid Geyser,
located near Daisy Geyser in the Upper Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National
Park. The report briefly describes and classifies the observed activity. The
activity of Pyramid Geyser was studied by periods of on-site observation and
two weeks of recorded geyser activity during each year of the study using a
The Explosive History of Wall Pool and Black
Opal Pool in Biscuit Basin
Abstract: This paper is an effort to describe the successive
episodes of explosive activity which opened up both Wall Pool and Black Opal
Pool in Biscuit Basin during this century.
Jewel Geyser as the "New Handkerchief Pool"
No Abstract Given [Excerpts chronicling the interesting history of the use of
this feature as a replacement for Handkerchief Pool.]
Sentinel Meadows and Flat Cone "Geyser"
Abstract: Occasional eruptions of Flat Cone have been reported
over the past decade. However, by the spring of 1992, Flat Cone Geyser became a
regularly erupting feature. The area was visited on a number of occasions from
May through October. This paper reports the activity of Flat Cone and other
Minor Eruptions by Castle Geyser
Interval and Duration Relationships, May 25-June 16 1995
T. Scott Bryan
Abstract: At no time on record in the past several decades did
Castle Geyser undergo as many or as frequent minor eruptions as was the case in
1995. This presented the opportunity to check a number of stories about minor
eruptions, and their intervals and durations as related to Castle's "normal"
major activity. By and large, the stories are factual enough that with
attention to the details of the activity, Castle remains one of the most
predictable geysers in Yellowstone, even when so-called unpredictable minor
action is common.
Discovery of the 1926 Old Faithful Nature
Trail Manuscript and a Discussion of Its Implications for Hot Spring Research
Lee Whittlesey, Rocco Paperiello and Mike Keller
No Abstract Given [Descriptions of and excerpts from the 125 page manuscript,
the history at the time, vintage photos, a map of the Myriad Group and many
interesting references are included in this paper.
Recorded Observations of Thermal Activity
at Shoshone Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park: 1988-1997
No Abstract Given [Details of observations by the author and others of many
features at Shoshone Geyser Basin. Includes maps and photos.]
Excerpts from "A Vagabond in the
Yellowstone," The Diary of Pat Quayle, September 4- October 14, 1915,
(handwritten, 288pp.) YNP Archives
No Abstract Given [The author describes features seen under the surface of
Shoshone Lake offshore from Shoshone Geyser Basin.]
Splendid Geyser in 1985 and 1986
T. Scott Bryan
Abstract: During the unprecedented eruptive activity by
Splendid Geyser during 1985 and 1986, it proved impossible to predict when an
active series would begin or how long it would last. Within a series, however,
there were some clear patterns. This paper summarizes a number of aspects of
this activity, and relates the findings to Splendid's activity of 1996.
Hillside Geyser at West Thumb
Abstract: Hillside Geyser at West Thumb Geyser Basin was active
in the Fall of 1995. The following report describes the results of three days
of observation of this geyser during late September 1995.
No abstract Given [A photo display of the September 25, 1995 Giant eruption.]
Observations of Flood Geyser in 1983 and 1984
H. Koenig and Tomas Vachuda
Abstract: During 1983 and 1984 eruption data was collected at
Flood Geyser which showed a linear correlation between the duration of an
eruption and the length of the following interval. There was also a possible
tri-modal distribution of intervals and durations.
A Nonlinear Perspective on the Dynamics of
Yellowstone's Plume Geyser
Kevin M. Short and Julie Knowles Raye
Abstract: In this paper we apply ideas of nonlinear dynamics to
the time series of Plume eruption data collected by Heinrich Koenig in 1993. We
note several well-known characteristic features of Plume's eruption behavior:
intermittency effects, indicated by a tendency to cease erupting, or "sleep",
for several hours each night; evidence of hysteresis, since eruptions "turn on"
and "turn off" at different temperatures; and the "Giantess Effect" where
eruption frequency increases and sleep periods disappear during eruptions of
nearby Giantess Geyser. We provide an introduction to nonlinear analysis
techniques and show how they can be useful in the analysis of the Plume time
series. We then model the refill-reheat-erupt cycle of Plume with a non linear
limit cycle which undergoes a subcritical Hopf bifurcation and develop a
mechanism where the limit cycle is driven by a diurnal variation in temperature
and the Geyser Hill Wave proposed by T. Scott Bryan. Finally, we show that this
model can reproduce the characteristic intermittency and hysteresis exhibited
by Plume, as well as the Giantess Effect. We also include a nonmathematical
summary of our results in the Appendix.
Excursions to the Kamchatka Geysers
Abstract: This paper serves as a brief introduction to the
Kamchatka geyser basin. Included are explanations of geyser behavior, a
description of significant features, and some results of recent studies related
to the Kamchatka geysers.