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Geysers of the World   

Geysers of Yellowstone   



Transactions IX

The Geysers of Lake Bogoria, Kenya Rift Valley, Africa

 By Robin W. Renaut and R. Bernhart Owen

 Abstract:  At least 13 geysers have been active at Lake Bogoria in the Kenya Rift Valley during the past 25 years. The alkaline (pH 8-9.8) Na-HCO3 fluids are discharged from vents in volcanic rocks or littoral sediments located along the shoreline at Loburu, Chemurkeu, Koibobei, and Losaramat.  Few of the geysers are predictable.  Their behavior is strongly influenced by the prevailing lake level, which is controlled mainly by climatic changes.  Rises in lake level increase discharge at some vents, while suppressing geyser activity at others.  Falling levels can induce eruptions by exposing formerly submerged vents.  Unlike most other geyser locations, siliceous sinter is absent around most of the vents because most of the discharged fluids are initially undersaturated with respect to amorphous silica.  Travertine deposits, however, are present at most active geysers and spouting springs at Loburu and Chemurkeu.  The geysers at Bogoria are probably the largest single group in Africa.


 “Monthly” Interval Variations by Beehive Geyser and Vicinity, Summer 2004

 By T. Scott Bryan

 Abstract:  The intervals of Beehive Geyser and of other geysers whose activity is known to be related to that of Beehive were monitored throughout the summer season of 2004.  The result was the discovery of a number of complex relationships dominated by a previously unknown “monthly” cycle.


The Relationship between the Timing of Rift Geyser Eruption Starts and the Length of Grand Geyser’s Intervals

 By Vicki Whitledge

 Abstract:  A relationship between the length of Grand Geyser’s interval and eruptions of Rift Geyser has long been suspected.  The electronic data from 2003 was analyzed to investigate and attempt to quantify this relationship. A sample of 310 Grand eruption cycles was studied in more detail to determine the nature of the relationship between Grand and Rift Geysers.  These data provide evidence of a statistical relationship between the timing of a Rift eruption start and the length of Grand’s interval.  The nature of this relationship is discussed.


Fan and Mortar Geysers in 2003

By Tara Cross

Abstract:  Fan and Mortar Geysers continued activity during 2003, but as compared to 2002 their eruptions took place on more erratic intervals.  This change was accompanied by significant changes in the activity of the minor vents during “event cycles.”


The Eruptive Patterns of Atomizer Geyser – An Historical and Quantitative Examination

By Lynn Stephens

Abstract:  Atomizer Geyser has an interesting pattern of activity—a series of minor eruptions leading up to the major eruption.  During August 2003, detailed observations about the characteristics of Atomizer’s series of minor eruptions were made.  This report describes the results of these observations and compares the conclusions with other reports about Atomizer’s behavior.


The Birth of “Aftershock Geyser,” Upper Geyser Basin

By Mike Keller

Abstract:  In the summer of 1997 there was an increase in activity in Seismic Geyser that included the formation of a new vent, later named “Aftershock.”  This paper will discuss the history of Seismic Geyser and detail the formation, growth, and activity of “Aftershock,” which was first noted in May 1999 and continued activity into March 2004.


Recent Activity of “Secluded Geyser” (UNNG-PMG-4), Upper Geyser Basin

By Stephen Michael Gryc

Abstract:  Secluded Geyser, also known as UNNG-PMG-4, is a little-studied spring in the Pipeline Meadows Group of the Upper Geyser Basin .  During June of 2004 it erupted in series.  Data on the geyser is scant, but observations are given in the hope that others may become interested in adding to the information about this small but intriguing feature.


 Hot Spring and Geyser Activity in the Pine Springs Group, Upper Geyser Basin

By T. Scott Bryan

Abstract:  The hot springs within the Pine Springs Group have seldom been documented, perhaps because no geyser activity of major scale has been observed there and because it historically was mostly been obscured from view by dense surrounding forest.  During 2003-2004, the largest geyser eruptions known to have occurred within the group’s “North Annex” were observed.  Those eruptions and other aspects of the Pine Springs’ activity are summarized here.

The Lower White Creek Group since 1996, Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

By Gordon R. Bower

Abstract:  Dramatic changes in geyser activity occurred in the White Creek Group in summer of 1996, around the same time as a series of earthquakes west of the Lower Geyser Basin .  Some of the new activity ended quickly, but other changes appear to have been permanent.  Increases in Botryoidal Spring’s and A-0 Geyser’s intervals since 1997 have been accompanied by increases in durations, so that the overall energy flux has remained nearly constant.  Some evidence of previously undocumented underground connections from Botryoidal Spring to A-0 Geyser and Great Fountain Geyser has been found.

The Bimodality of Bead Geyser, Pink Cone Group, Lower Geyser Basin

By Gordon R. Bower

Abstract:  Bead Geyser has an “every half hour like clockwork” reputation, yet its shortest and longest intervals on a single day often differ by as much as ten minutes.  Most of these intervals fall into two tightly-clustered groups, one set being four minutes longer than the other set.  Bead’s preplay is characterized by episodes of strong convection over the vent four minutes apart.  This suggests an explanation for the interval distribution, and for how it is possible for Bead to appear highly regular at times and quite irregular at other times.


 Geyser Activity in the Kaleidoscope Group, Lower Geyser Basin , with Comments on Activity of Selected Geysers in the Sprinkler Group

By Mike Keller

Abstract:  The Kaleidoscope Group of geysers is one of Yellowstone’s most dynamic and changeable clusters of hot springs , but it is difficult to study because of restricted access.  Here the group’s recent geyser activity is described, as well as the activity of selected geysers in the nearby Sprinkler Group.


Geyser Activity of Taurus Spring and Water Fluctuations in the Orion Group, Shoshone Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

By Clark Murray

Abstract:  Taurus Spring has had a history of rare eruptions in the years since the 1959 earthquake.  This activity is described, as are aspects of water level variations observed within the Orion Group of hot springs of which Taurus is a member.


 Geyser Activity at Heart Lake Geyser Basin, 1993-2003

By Jeff Cross

Abstract:  Geyser activity observed at Heart Lake Geyser Basin from1993 through 2003 is described.  Most notable is the exchange of function between Rustic geyser and a nearby unnamed geyser.  A mode of eruption for Glade Geyser that has probably been occurring for many years is also described.  The location and appearance of several probable fault scarps is also noted.


 A Visit to Smoke Jumper Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park

By Mike Keller

Abstract:  This scattered area of acidic hot springs was investigated in September 2003 in order to document the thermal activity.  As expected, no geysers were found, but there were fumaroles, frying pans and perpetual spouters among large, muddy pools.


  Southern California’s “Soda Springs” – Another Possible Mud Pot Locality Near the Salton Sea

By T. Scott Bryan

Abstract:  G.W. James in a 1907 publication described an area of “dead” mud pots near the west shore of the Salton Sea.  The area involved is an intriguing one, but whether true mud pots have been active since the 1800s is questionable.


 Geology of the Soda Dam Travertine Deposits, Sandoval County, New Mexico

By William P. Moats

Abstract:  The thermal springs and travertine deposits of Soda Dam, in the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico , are associated with the nearby Valles Caldera, which bears a high-temperature geothermal system.  This paper presents the results of a mapping project that defines the relationship between the springs and the local geologic setting.


Geysers in Bolivia – A Summary of Possibilities

By T. Scott Bryan

Abstract:  That geysers might exist within Bolivia should be no surprise, given their certain existence at no fewer than three localities not far across the border within Chile . However, although geysers have been reported to occur at six Bolivian locations, at none of those places have true geysers been confirmed to exist.  This paper summarizes the bare knowledge available about these locations.


 The Operation and Geography of Carbon Dioxide-Driven, Cold-Water “Geysers”

By J. Alan Glennon and Rhonda M. Pfaff

Abstract:  Eruptive activity of carbon-dioxide-driven, cold-water geysers is similar to hot-water geysers, except that CO2 bubbles cause the eruption instead of steam.  CO2-driven eruptions occur as CO2 degasses and expands, displacing overlying water.  Many, if not most, cold-water geysers are actually manmade boreholes.  Several such erupting wells, including Crystal and Woodside Geysers, are located near Green River, Utah. Similar to their naturally occurring counterparts, their exact eruptive activity may be erratic and change through time. Generally, however, frequency and power of Crystal and Woodside Geysers’ eruptions have been observed to be fairly consistent over the past decade.  Cold-water geysers are known in France, Germany, New Zealand, Serbia, Slovakia, and the United States .

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