The Geysers of
By Robin W. Renaut and R. Bernhart
least 13 geysers have been active at
in the Kenya Rift Valley during the past 25 years. The alkaline (pH 8-9.8)
Na-HCO3 fluids are discharged from vents in volcanic rocks or littoral
sediments located along the shoreline at Loburu, Chemurkeu, Koibobei, and
Losaramat. Few of the geysers are
predictable. Their behavior is
strongly influenced by the prevailing lake level, which is controlled mainly by
Rises in lake level increase discharge at some vents, while suppressing geyser activity at
others. Falling levels can induce
eruptions by exposing formerly submerged vents. Unlike
most other geyser locations, siliceous sinter is absent around most of the
vents because most of the discharged fluids are initially undersaturated with
respect to amorphous silica. Travertine
deposits, however, are present at most active geysers and spouting springs at
Loburu and Chemurkeu. The geysers
at Bogoria are probably the largest single group in
Variations by Beehive Geyser and Vicinity, Summer 2004
By T. Scott Bryan
intervals of Beehive Geyser and of other geysers whose activity is known to be
related to that of Beehive were monitored throughout the summer season of 2004. The
result was the discovery of a number of complex relationships dominated by a
previously unknown “monthly” cycle.
Relationship between the Timing of Rift Geyser Eruption Starts and the
Length of Grand Geyser’s Intervals
By Vicki Whitledge
relationship between the length of Grand Geyser’s interval and eruptions of
Rift Geyser has long been suspected. The
electronic data from 2003 was analyzed to investigate and attempt to quantify
this relationship. A sample of 310 Grand eruption cycles was studied in more
detail to determine the nature of the relationship between Grand and Rift
Geysers. These data provide
evidence of a statistical relationship between the timing of a Rift eruption
start and the length of Grand’s interval. The
nature of this relationship is discussed.
Mortar Geysers in 2003
Fan and Mortar Geysers continued activity during 2003, but as compared to 2002 their eruptions
took place on more erratic intervals. This
change was accompanied by significant changes in the activity of the minor
vents during “event cycles.”
The Eruptive Patterns of
Atomizer Geyser – An Historical and Quantitative
Atomizer Geyser has an interesting pattern of activity—a series of minor eruptions leading up
to the major eruption. During
August 2003, detailed observations about the characteristics of Atomizer’s
series of minor eruptions were made. This
report describes the results of these observations and compares the conclusions
with other reports about Atomizer’s behavior.
The Birth of “Aftershock Geyser,”
In the summer of 1997 there was an increase in activity in Seismic Geyser that included the
formation of a new vent, later named “Aftershock.” This
paper will discuss the history of Seismic Geyser and detail the formation,
growth, and activity of “Aftershock,” which was first noted in May 1999 and
continued activity into March 2004.
Recent Activity of “Secluded Geyser” (UNNG-PMG-4),
Secluded Geyser, also known as UNNG-PMG-4, is a little-studied spring in the Pipeline Meadows
Group of the
. During June of 2004
it erupted in series. Data on the
geyser is scant, but observations are given in the hope that others may become
interested in adding to the information about this small but intriguing
Hot Spring and Geyser Activity in the Pine Springs Group,
By T. Scott
The hot springs within the Pine Springs Group have seldom been documented, perhaps because no
geyser activity of major scale has been observed there and because it
historically was mostly been obscured from view by dense surrounding forest.
During 2003-2004, the largest geyser eruptions known to have occurred within the group’s
“North Annex” were observed. Those
eruptions and other aspects of the Pine Springs’ activity are summarized here.
The Lower White Creek Group since 1996,
By Gordon R.
Dramatic changes in geyser activity occurred in the White Creek Group in summer of 1996,
around the same time as a series of earthquakes west of the
. Some of the new
activity ended quickly, but other changes appear to have been permanent. Increases
in Botryoidal Spring’s and A-0 Geyser’s intervals since 1997 have been
accompanied by increases in durations, so that the overall energy flux has
remained nearly constant. Some
evidence of previously undocumented underground connections from Botryoidal
Spring to A-0 Geyser and Great Fountain Geyser has been found.
The Bimodality of Bead Geyser, Pink Cone Group,
By Gordon R.
Bead Geyser has an “every half hour like clockwork” reputation, yet its shortest and longest
intervals on a single day often differ by as much as ten minutes. Most
of these intervals fall into two tightly-clustered groups, one set being four
minutes longer than the other set.
Bead’s preplay is characterized by episodes of strong convection over the vent four minutes
This suggests an explanation for the interval distribution, and for how it is possible for
Bead to appear highly regular at times and quite irregular at other times.
Geyser Activity in the Kaleidoscope Group,
Comments on Activity of Selected Geysers in the Sprinkler
The Kaleidoscope Group of geysers is one of Yellowstone’s most dynamic and changeable clusters
, but it is difficult to study because of restricted access.
Here the group’s recent geyser activity is described, as well as the activity of selected
geysers in the nearby Sprinkler Group.
Geyser Activity of Taurus Spring and Water Fluctuations in the
By Clark Murray
Taurus Spring has had a history of rare eruptions in the years since the 1959 earthquake.
This activity is described, as are aspects of water level variations observed within the Orion
of which Taurus is a member.
Geyser Activity at Heart Lake Geyser
By Jeff Cross
Geyser activity observed at
from1993 through 2003 is described. Most
notable is the exchange of function between Rustic geyser and a nearby unnamed
geyser. A mode of eruption for
Glade Geyser that has probably been occurring for many years is also described. The
location and appearance of several probable fault scarps is also noted.
A Visit to Smoke Jumper
This scattered area of acidic
was investigated in September 2003 in order to document the thermal activity. As
expected, no geysers were found, but there were fumaroles, frying pans and
perpetual spouters among large, muddy pools.
Southern California’s “Soda Springs” – Another
Possible Mud Pot Locality Near the Salton Sea
By T. Scott
G.W. James in a 1907 publication described an area of “dead” mud pots near the west shore of
Sea. The area involved is an intriguing one,
but whether true mud pots have been active since the 1800s is questionable.
Geology of the Soda Dam Travertine Deposits,
By William P.
The thermal springs and travertine deposits of Soda Dam, in the
, are associated with the nearby Valles Caldera, which bears a
high-temperature geothermal system. This
paper presents the results of a mapping project that defines the relationship
between the springs and the local geologic setting.
A Summary of Possibilities
By T. Scott
That geysers might exist within
should be no surprise, given their certain existence at no fewer than three
localities not far across the border within
. However, although geysers have been reported to occur at
six Bolivian locations, at none of those places have
true geysers been confirmed to exist. This
paper summarizes the bare knowledge available about these locations.
The Operation and Geography of Carbon
Dioxide-Driven, Cold-Water “Geysers”
By J. Alan
Glennon and Rhonda M. Pfaff
Eruptive activity of carbon-dioxide-driven, cold-water geysers is similar to hot-water
geysers, except that CO2 bubbles cause the eruption instead of steam. CO2-driven
eruptions occur as CO2 degasses and expands, displacing overlying water. Many,
if not most, cold-water geysers are actually manmade boreholes. Several
such erupting wells, including
and Woodside Geysers, are located near
Utah. Similar to their naturally occurring counterparts, their
exact eruptive activity may be erratic and change through time. Generally,
however, frequency and power of
and Woodside Geysers’ eruptions have been observed to be fairly consistent over
the past decade. Cold-water
geysers are known in
Slovakia, and the